HIV Stigma 101


Adam, B. D., Murray, J., Ross, S., Oliver, J., Lincoln, S. G., & Rynard, V. (2011). hivstigma. com, an innovative web-supported stigma reduction intervention for gay and bisexual men. Health education research, 26(5), 795-807. Click here to access the full text

Berger, B. E., Ferrans, C. E., & Lashley, F. R. (2001). Measuring stigma in people with HIV: Psychometric assessment of the HIV stigma scale. Research in nursing & health, 24(6), 518-529.

Brennan, D. J., Emlet, C. A., Brennenstuhl, S., & Rueda, S. (2013). Socio-demographic profile of older adults with HIV/AIDS: Gender and sexual orientation differences. Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue canadienne du vieillissement, 32(01), 31-43.

Brent, R. J. (2016). The value of reducing HIV stigma. Social Science & Medicine, 151, 233-240. Click here to access the full text

Brown, L., Macintyre, K., & Trujillo, L. (2003). Interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma: what have we learned? AIDS education and prevention, 15(1), 49-69. Click here to access the full text

Chollier, M., Tomkinson, C., & Philibert, P. (2016). STIs/HIV Stigma and health: A short review. Sexologies, 25(4), e71-e75.

Christensen, J. L., Miller, L. C., Appleby, P. R., Corsbie-Massay, C., Godoy, C. G., Marsella, S. C., & Read, S. J. (2013). Reducing shame in a game that predicts HIV risk reduction for young adult men who have sex with men: a randomized trial delivered nationally over the web. Journal of the international AIDS Society, 16(3). Click here to access the full text

Clair, M., Daniel, C., & Lamont, M. (2016). Destigmatization and health: Cultural constructions and the long-term reduction of stigma. Social Science & Medicine, 165, 223-232. Click here to access the full text

Davis, C., Sloan, M., Macmaster, S., & Hughes, L. (2007). The International AIDS Questionnaire—English Version (IAQ-E) Assessing the Validity and Reliability. Journal of HIV/AIDS prevention in children & youth, 7(2), 29-42.

Derose, K. P., Bogart, L. M., Kanouse, D. E., Felton, A., Collins, D. O., Mata, M. A., . . . Hawes-Dawson, J. (2014). An intervention to reduce HIV-related stigma in partnership with African American and Latino churches. AIDS education and prevention, 26(1), 28-42. Click here to access the full text

Earnshaw, V. A., & Chaudoir, S. R. (2009). From conceptualizing to measuring HIV stigma: a review of HIV stigma mechanism measures. AIDS and Behavior, 13(6), 1160. Click here to access the full text

Earnshaw, V. A., Smith, L. R., Chaudoir, S. R., Amico, K. R., & Copenhaver, M. M. (2013). HIV stigma mechanisms and well-being among PLWH: a test of the HIV stigma framework. AIDS and Behavior, 17(5), 1785-1795. Click here to access the full text

Emlet, C. A., Brennan, D. J., Brennenstuhl, S., Rueda, S., Hart, T. A., & Rourke, S. B. (2013). Protective and risk factors associated with stigma in a population of older adults living with HIV in Ontario, Canada. AIDS care, 25(10), 1330-1339.

Gordon-Garofalo, V. L., & Rubin, A. (2004). Evaluation of a psychoeducational group for seronegative partners and spouses of persons with HIV/AIDS. Research on Social Work Practice, 14(1), 14-26.

Hatzenbuehler, M. L. (2009). How does sexual minority stigma “get under the skin”? A psychological mediation framework. Psychological bulletin, 135(5), 707. Click here to access the full text

Holzemer, W. L., Uys, L. R., Chirwa, M. L., Greeff, M., Makoae, L. N., Kohi, T. W., . . . Phetlhu, R. D. (2007). Validation of the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument—PLWA (HASI-P). AIDS care, 19(8), 1002-1012.

Hosek, S. G., Lemos, D., Harper, G. W., & Telander, K. (2011). Evaluating the acceptability and feasibility of Project ACCEPT: an intervention for youth newly diagnosed with HIV. AIDS education and prevention, 23(2), 128-144. Click here to access the full text

Kalichman, S. C., Simbayi, L. C., Cloete, A., Mthembu, P. P., Mkhonta, R. N., & Ginindza, T. (2009). Measuring AIDS stigmas in people living with HIV/AIDS: the Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale. AIDS care, 21(1), 87-93.

Kennedy, T., Teti, M., Hayes, D., Pichon, L. C., & Farnan, R. (2016). ” Unmasked to a Positive Triumph”: Women With HIV Share the Benefits of Showing Their Faces Through Photovoice. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action, 10(4), 505-513.

Loutfy, M. R., Logie, C. H., Zhang, Y., Blitz, S. L., Margolese, S. L., Tharao, W. E., . . . Raboud, J. M. (2012). Gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma experienced by people living with HIV in Ontario, Canada. PloS one, 7(12), e48168. Click here to access the full text

Nachega, J., Uthman, O., Mills, E., & Peltzer, K. (2013). The impact of employment on HIV treatment adherence.

Nyblade, L., Stangl, A., Weiss, E., & Ashburn, K. (2009). Combating HIV stigma in health care settings: what works? Journal of the international AIDS Society, 12(1), 15. Click here to access the full text

Pescosolido, B. A., Martin, J. K., Lang, A., & Olafsdottir, S. (2008). Rethinking theoretical approaches to stigma: A framework integrating normative influences on stigma (FINIS). Social Science & Medicine, 67(3), 431-440. Click here to access the full text

Ramirez-Valles, J., Kuhns, L. M., & Manjarrez, D. (2014). Tal Como Somos/Just As We Are: An Educational Film to Reduce Stigma toward Gay and Bisexual Men, Transgender Individuals, and Persons Living With HIV/AIDS. Journal of health communication, 19(4), 478-492. Click here to access the full text

Rueda, S., Gibson, K., Rourke, S. B., Bekele, T., Gardner, S., Cairney, J., & Team, O. C. S. (2012). Mastery moderates the negative effect of stigma on depressive symptoms in people living with HIV. AIDS and Behavior, 16(3), 690-699.

Rutledge, S. E., Whyte, J., Abell, N., Brown, K. M., & Cesnales, N. I. (2011). Measuring stigma among health care and social service providers: The HIV/AIDS provider stigma inventory. AIDS patient care and STDs, 25(11), 673-682.

Sayles, J. N., Hays, R. D., Sarkisian, C. A., Mahajan, A. P., Spritzer, K. L., & Cunningham, W. E. (2008). Development and psychometric assessment of a multidimensional measure of internalized HIV stigma in a sample of HIV-positive adults. AIDS and Behavior, 12(5), 748-758. Click here to access the full text

Sengupta, S., Banks, B., Jonas, D., Miles, M. S., & Smith, G. C. (2011). HIV interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma: a systematic review. AIDS and Behavior, 15(6), 1075-1087. Click here to access the full text

Service, R. R. (2015). HIV-related stigma in relation to health care professionals in Canada. Toronto, ON: Ontario HIV Treatment Network. Click here to access the full text

Stangl, A. L., Lloyd, J. K., Brady, L. M., Holland, C. E., & Baral, S. (2013). A systematic review of interventions to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination from 2002 to 2013: how far have we come? Journal of the international AIDS Society, 16(3). Click here to access the full text

Turan, B., Hatcher, A. M., Weiser, S. D., Johnson, M. O., Rice, W. S., & Turan, J. M. (2017). Mechanisms Linking HIV-Related Stigma, Adherence to Treatment, and Health Outcomes: A Conceptual Framework. American Journal of Public Health(0), e1-e7.

Uys, L. R., Holzemer, W. L., Chirwa, M. L., Dlamini, P. S., Greeff, M., Kohi, T. W., . . . Phetlhu, R. D. (2009). The development and validation of the HIV/AIDS stigma instrument–nurse (HASI-N). AIDS care, 21(2), 150-159. Click here to access the full text

Visser, M. J., Kershaw, T., Makin, J. D., & Forsyth, B. W. (2008). Development of parallel scales to measure HIV-related stigma. AIDS and Behavior, 12(5), 759-771. Click here to access the full text

Wagner, A. C., Hart, T. A., McShane, K. E., Margolese, S., & Girard, T. A. (2014). Health care provider attitudes and beliefs about people living with HIV: Initial validation of the health care provider HIV/AIDS Stigma Scale (HPASS). AIDS and Behavior, 18(12), 2397-2408. Click here to access the full text

Ward, J., & Winstanley, D. (2005). Coming out at work: Performativity and the recognition and renegotiation of identity. The Sociological Review, 53(3), 447-475. Click here to access the full text

Wright, K., Naar-King, S., Lam, P., Templin, T., & Frey, M. (2007). Stigma scale revised: reliability and validity of a brief measure of stigma for HIV+ youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40(1), 96-98. Click here to access the full text